(a) the agreement is void under the law of the State of the chosen court; (b) a party has not been able to conclude the contract under the law of the State of the court seised; (c) the implementation of the agreement would result in a manifest injustice or would be manifestly contrary to public policy in the State of the court seised; (d) for exceptional reasons beyond the control of the parties, the contract cannot reasonably be performed; or (e) the chosen court has decided not to hear the case. Please contact Dr. Jennifer Bryant if you have any questions about the recognition and enforcement of judgments or arbitral awards. Article 22 Reciprocal declarations on agreements on non-exclusive jurisdiction The Hague Conference began in 1996 with the « Draft judgments »: the elaboration of a Convention on Jurisdiction and the Recognition of Judgments. Jurisdiction under such a convention would be divided into three categories: the bases of jurisdiction that would be mandatory, optional or prohibited. As the negotiators did not reach consensus on such an agreement, the scope of work was reduced to jurisdiction and recognition of decisions based on judicial agreement between the parties. During the negotiations, parallels were drawn between the New York Convention on Arbitral Awards: the objective was to create a system of recognition of judgments based on court cases in which the tribunal was chosen on the basis of a jurisdictional agreement that would create the same level of predictability and enforceability as in arbitral awards in the States of the New York Convention. [3] 1. A Contracting State may declare that its courts recognize and enforce the decisions of the courts of other Contracting States designated in an agreement on jurisdiction concluded by two or more parties which satisfies the requirements of Article 3(c) and which has as its object the conduct of disputes arising or likely to arise in the context of a particular legal relationship: — one or more courts of one or more Contracting States (convention conferring non-exclusive jurisdiction). .

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